• 储能系统与工程 •

### 飞轮储能在电力系统的工程应用

1. 1.华北电力大学先进飞轮储能技术研究中心，北京 102206
2.贝肯新能源天津有限公司，天津 300300
3.加拿大北阿尔伯塔理工学院，阿尔伯塔 埃德蒙顿 T5G 2R1
• 收稿日期:2019-11-11 修回日期:2020-02-07 出版日期:2020-05-05 发布日期:2020-05-11
• 通讯作者: 李文艳 E-mail:liweny@126.com
• 作者简介:涂伟超（1995—），男，硕士研究生，主要从事飞轮储能工程应用研究，E-mail：2366499304@qq.com；
• 基金资助:
先进飞轮储能国产化关键技术开发项目(KH18010147)

### Engineering application of flywheel energy storage in power system

TU Weichao1, LI Wenyan1(), ZHANG Qiang2, Jia'ao WANG3

1. 1.Research Center for Advanced Flywheel Energy Storage Technology of North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206, China
2.BC New Energy Tianjin Co. Ltd, Tianjin 300300, China
3.Northern Alberta Institute of Technology, Edmonton T5G 2R1, Alberta, Canada
• Received:2019-11-11 Revised:2020-02-07 Online:2020-05-05 Published:2020-05-11
• Contact: Wenyan LI E-mail:liweny@126.com

2018年底的统计数据表明，新能源发电装机首超水电，跃居我国第二大发电形式，但新能源本身固有的随机性和波动性对电网的稳定带来了挑战，并且新能源机组对电网调峰、调频的贡献可以忽略不计。建设一定规模以飞轮储能为代表的电网级灵活调节资源是应对这一挑战的途径之一，飞轮储能的工程价值则通过调频辅助服务市场等典型应用场景得以体现。本文通过对近年来飞轮储能工程项目进展情况的跟踪，介绍了飞轮储能技术的主要子系统及各大公司和研究机构的技术路线，归纳出飞轮储能在电力系统的工程应用主要包括电网调频、新能源消纳和微电网支撑等，应用于新能源消纳时飞轮储能有平滑出力和无功补偿等多种工作模式，可以弥补新能源发电的不确定性。但与功率型电池储能技术相比，制约飞轮储能技术大规模应用的瓶颈在于初始投资成本过高，电网级飞轮储能技术的发展方向应为更高的性价比，这样才能获得应有的市场份额。

Abstract:

The statistical data at the end of 2018 shows that the new energy power generation is the second largest power generation form in China, but the inherent randomness and volatility of the new energy itself have brought challenges to the stability of the power grid, and the contribution of the new energy units to the peak load regulation and frequency modulation of the power grid can be ignored. One of the ways to deal with this challenge is to build a certain scale of grid level flexible regulation resources represented by flywheel energy storage. The engineering value of flywheel energy storage is reflected by typical application scenarios such as frequency modulation auxiliary service market. By tracking the progress of flywheel energy storage project in recent years, this paper introduces the main subsystem of flywheel energy storage technology and the technical route of major companies and research institutions, and concludes that the engineering application of flywheel energy storage in power system mainly includes grid frequency modulation, renewable energy consumption and micro grid support. When applied to grid frequency modulation, flywheel changes its output according to the area control error of the grid. When applied to renewable energy consumption, flywheel facility has different control modes. In the power output smoothing control mode, the flywheel energy storage facility shall smooth the varying real power output from renewable energy on a continuous basis. By comparing the instantaneous real power output of renewable energy to the average real power output of renewable energy obtained over a field adjustable time period, the flywheel will adjust its power demands to ensure that the average real power output of renewable energy is equal to the sum of the instantaneous real power output of the flywheel and renewable energy. In the dynamic reactive power support control mode, the flywheel energy storage facility shall inject appropriate amount of reactive power at the grid so that the grid reactive power flow nullifies the grid voltage change as a result of average real power injection by renewable energy. The flywheel provide dynamic power support by operating the facility in variable power factor control mode. Reactive power absorption is a continuous function of two variables, one is grid voltage level and another is total real power output from renewable energy and the flywheel. The installation of flywheel energy storage device can make up for the uncertainty of renewable energy generation. However, compared with the power battery energy storage technology, the bottleneck restricting the large-scale application of flywheel energy storage technology lies in the high initial investment cost, and the development direction of grid level flywheel energy storage technology should be higher cost performance, so as to obtain the market share.